Keep Running


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The race or athletic event is a favorite metaphor in the New Testament epistles. It is used in 1 Corinthians 9:24, and in Hebrews 12, as an example of the Christian life, or more specifically the journey the Christian makes. The apostle Paul says: “Do you not know that in a race all the runners run, but only one receives the prize? So run that you may obtain it. Every athlete exercises self-control in all things. They do it to receive a perishable wreath, but we an imperishable . So I do not run aimlessly; I do not box as one beating the air. But I discipline my body and keep it under control, lest after preaching to others I myself should be disqualified,” 1 Corinthians 9:24-27, ESV.

The metaphor of a runner in a race is one that would have been well known and understood in Paul’s day. Both the ancient Greeks and Romans competed in foot races. It was (and is) one of the events held in the Olympic games. There are depictions on ancient Greek pottery of foot races. The writer of Hebrews expands upon the metaphor, bringing an audience into the illustration: “Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God. Consider him who endured from sinners such hostility against himself, so that you may not grow weary or fainthearted. In your struggle against sin you have not yet resisted to the point of shedding your blood,” Hebrews 12:1-4, ESV.

A great crowd of spectators is introduced, those who have already completed the race, perhaps in a stadium or along the path of a marathon. They’re all watching intently as those still on earth run the journey of the Christian life. Look to Jesus for an example of how to run the race. Eugene Peterson translates the passage this way: “Do you see what this means–all these pioneers who blazed the way, all these veterans cheering us on? It means we’d better get on with it. Strip down, start running–and never quit! No extra spiritual fat, no parasitic sins. Keep your eyes on Jesus, who both began and finished this race we’re in. Study how he did it. Because he never lost sight of where he was headed–that exhilarating finish in and with God–he could put up with anything along the way: cross, shame, whatever. And now he’s there, in the place of honor, right alongside God. When you find yourselves flagging in your faith, go over that story again, item by item, that long litany of hostility he plowed through. That will shoot adrenaline into your souls!” Hebrews 12:1-4, MSG.

Look to Jesus to sustain you while running the race. Look to Jesus for the much needed boost. Look to Jesus to lift you up when you stumble while running. Look to Jesus, fixate on him as you run for the finish line. Look to Jesus; keep running.


I Know That I Know That I Know


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What is faith? What are some of the attributes of faith? Not a faith, as in Christianity, or Judaism, but faith. What is the faith that is spoken of in Hebrews chapter 11 verse 1: “Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen (ESV)” or as the Message puts it “trust in God,” a “handle on what we can’t see.”

Hebrews 11 goes on to give examples of faith: Abel, Noah, Joseph, and many others. The first part of verse 1 says that “Faith is the assurance of things hoped for.” The Greek word translated as assurance is ὑπόστασις. The King James Version translates it as the “substance of things hoped for,” rather than assurance. Assurance. Substance. Hope. This is not a foolish hope. It’s not “If I hope long enough, hard enough, and well enough, I am assured of getting a new Ferrari.” It’s not “If I hope long enough, hard enough, and well enough, I am assured of a life without trouble.” It is a trust in God. It is “I am assured of my hope in a savior—Christ—that came to earth two thousand years ago in human form, lived among humans, was crucified, and rose again. It is trust that whatever this Hope says will happen, will.

“Now faith is the…conviction of things not seen.” Here we go back again to the Hope. Though people two thousand years ago saw Christ and walked with him in the flesh, we have faith, we have conviction that he is real, that he is who and what he says he is, even though we do not see him. We have faith and conviction that his promises are true, that whatever he says and promises will happen even though we perhaps do not see it now. Noah built an ark on the “conviction of things not seen.” Abraham waited for a son, and for descendants as many as the stars, on the “conviction of things not seen.” It’s “I know that I know that I know. I know that God is real. I have knowledge of his realness. I have knowledge of him. I know that he will keep his promises. I know that I know that I know.”




Considering the Classical Education


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That great English writer, G.K. Chesterton once claimed that: “Tradition means giving a vote to the most obscure of all classes, our ancestors. It is the democracy of the dead…Tradition refuses to submit to the small and arrogant oligarchy of those who merely happen to be walking about. All democrats object to men being disqualified by the accident of birth; tradition objects to their being disqualified by the accident of death (Chesterton).” An astute observation. It is a maxim that the monolith institution of education would do well to contemplate and observe. This does not mean education as the act of learning, but the way by which one learns what one learns. As with many other institutions, the established method of education has been demolished. The combined arrogance of the living masses has said, “Why respect the dead? Why use the established methods?” But then forgotten to address adequately the equally important question: “Why not?”

The progressive living have questioned the slower dead, and eventually find that the democracy of the dead answers back implacably: “Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge? Dress for action like a man; I will question you, and you make it known to me (Job 38:2-3).” 

Before proceeding to definitions, the purpose of this paper should be clarified. It is not to argue that classical education should be reinstated exactly as it was, nor that all modern methods have no worth. The purpose of this paper is to show that the classical education should not be dismissed so quickly, and at least the fundamental methods and spirit of it should be resurrected. Now, on to definitions.

To define method. Method is that which education (the institution) uses to teach students. It is the model used. It is the structural backbone of the process—the set of rules by which the game is played. These rules may be strict, or loose, but they are rules nonetheless. The structure may be complex or simple, but nonetheless it is structure. One of these structures, one of these sets of rules—a “tradition” and “democracy of the dead”—that has fallen by the wayside is the classical education. The form of education that the vast democracy aforementioned learned by. The form in which some of the most formidable minds ever were forged and sharpened. Beginning perhaps with Socrates, and continuing down through the ages. The founders of the United States were trained in this way, authors such as J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, and war heroes such as Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain.

Classical education also needs to be defined. It has been established that it is a time-honored method of learning. Tracy Lee Simmons says of classical education:

We find that, in an instructed age, the old regimen needs not only defending but also defining. Once classical education pointed to an elite course of instruction based upon Greek and Latin, the two great languages of the classical world. But it also delved into the history, philosophy, literature, and art of the Greek and Roman worlds, affording over time to the more perspicacious devotees a remarkably high degree of cultural understanding, an understanding that endured and marked the learner for life. Classical education was classical immersion. Students in the great and exclusive Public Schools of England were once made to learn far more about the archons of Greek city-states and emperors of Rome, and commit to memory far more lines of Greek and Roman poetry and drama, than they ever had to learn about Tudors and Stuarts, about Chaucer and Shakespeare. But the languages never took second seat: mastering them came first, and doing so became the crowning achievement of a classical education. Why? Because knowledge and information were not quite enough.

Classical education did not set itself to instilling knowledge alone; it also sought to polish and refine. And neither rigor nor beauty in one’s use of language obtained firmly without Greek and Latin. Together they provided both a mental gymnastic and a training in taste. (Simmons 3).

For centuries, the Greek and Latin languages have been integral to an education—to a classical education. It is asked why study Latin which is essentially dead, and the old forms of Greek? It certainly is not economically practical, and won’t likely lead to a six-figure salary. It’s not progressive. It certainly doesn’t fit with the modern, ever more career oriented, education. M.D. Aeschliman comments:

Isaac Kandel was an English Jew who emigrated in 1908 from England to the United States, not out of persecution but out of a desire for more education and employment opportunities, like my own father from Geneva about a decade later. Highly educated at Manchester in the classics, German, and the new field of education, he went to America to do a doctorate in education at Teachers College, Columbia University, the national and international center of the “Progressive” educational movement identified with John Dewey. For twenty subsequent years, first as a doctoral student and then as a professor at Teachers College, Kandel was an appreciative “Progressive.” But in the 1930s he began to worry about the central tenets of the increasingly dominant educational Progressivism: a naive faith in the child’s capacity to direct his own learning; a derogation of books and learned traditions; a hatred or contempt for the civilized past and its achievements, including organized religion and ethics; a simplistic faith in the capacity of the natural-science paradigm to direct all personal and social growth; social and political utopianism; ethical relativism; and perpetual experimentalism (Aeschliman).

“A derogation of books and learned traditions.” This sounds eerily familiar. “A hatred or contempt for the civilized past and its achievements” or the “democracy of the dead.” Now a certain amount of progressiveness in education is acceptable, especially within certain fields. The field of science for example is quite fluid and so it is natural and acceptable that what is taught and even the method of teaching should change over time. However, methods in certain fields of education should not be so quickly razed, namely the fields to which a classical education applies: rhetoric, literature, history, language, and logic. Rhetoric, literature, history and language are all taught today, but in vastly different ways than of old. Logic is taught, but not nearly as much as it used to be.

The classical education trained the student how to think. Through a rigorous grounding in the aforementioned disciplines—through a training in formal logic—one learned to exercise the mental faculties in the way that Socrates, Plato, and many others did. As Simmons put it, it was a “mental gymnastic.” The classical education was about addressing problems by a certain method. It is a sort of strength conditioner, but also a lens by which the student views the world. The classical education was about learning the Greek and Latin languages and the history connected to them. It is this attitude: “Come now, let us reason together… (Isaiah).” Let us reason together by a well proven method. Let us reason together as Socrates reasoned, as Aristotle reasoned, as Tolkien reasoned, and as Chamberlain reasoned.

Perhaps this is too much to ask in the current age. But at the least, the classical education could involve a thorough grounding in the history, the thought, and religion of western civilization, for the classical education is by nature a product of the west. Whether the current western institutions like it or not, the classical education is their inheritance.  The directed, mental gymnastics program—the inheritance—was rejected and replaced too quickly and too violently with, “a naïve faith in the child’s capacity to direct his own learning.” The democracy of the dead has been silenced by the oligarchy of the living.


Works Cited

Aeschliman, M.D. “Why We Always Need Socrates: Some Unfashionable, Unprogressive Thoughts on  Teachers, Teaching, Curriculum, and the Theory of Knowledge, with Reference and Thanks to Socrates, Pascal, and C.S. Lewis.” Journal of Education (2007).

Chesterton, G.K. “Ethics of Elfland.” Orthodoxy. Print.

Isaiah. Isaiah. ESV. Crossway. Print.

Job. Job. Crossway. Print.

Simmons, Tracy Lee. Climbing Parnassus: A New Apologia for Greek and Latin. Intercollegiate Studies Institute. Print.



A Letter in the Tradition of Screwtape


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My Dear Scumglob,

This is a letter to commend you and your department’s excellent work in the United States. You are to be rewarded for your masterful inciting of mobs. It is fantastic the success you’ve achieved in getting them to riot over just about anything. Even more gratifying is the fact that you’ve gotten it to transcend their petty political “parties.” Continue this work. Make sure though that you do not grow lazy. Continue to lead them on in the deception that they are rioting—the word they use flippantly for any manner of disturbance is “protesting”—for a cause, whether it be what they call freedom, or rights, or religion (freedom of, or freedom from—it doesn’t matter).

There are all sorts of ways you can continue on in the deception. Make sure you brief your under-rabble-rousers about the importance of always obscuring the true reason for “protesting” behind a cause—it doesn’t matter what cause, as said before. But they cannot be allowed to realize the real reasons of the protests, whether they be protestor or observers of the protestors. They above all cannot be allowed time to take in the Enemy’s abominable words about the “man of lawlessness.” Lead them on in the deception that they are working to better the laws. If you twist their thinking enough, eventually they will come to regard even vandalism and violence as steps to democracy, freedom, and “fair” laws. Get them to think they are fighting for something, anything. But, do not let them see the reality behind the mobs. Do not let them see that they are “protesting” as a mere front for their own idolatry. It doesn’t matter what the offending article is, just so long as it offends their own authority. The most favorable circumstance is where each and every one of the vermin is his own little god. Of course, he must not be allowed to actually think on this. Again, let him blame his actions on a cause, on a right. They must never be allowed to think even for a moment that they riot because they are angry, or because something has infringed upon their individual deity.

For example, the rights they always squabbling about. This has been a brilliant play on our part, getting them to think of their wants and desires (however irrational or foolish) as rights. They want this, so they talk about it as a basic human right. They don’t like authority, so they claim that they are being brutalized. Always get them to act as their own god, but don’t ever let them see that they are, or so much as think about idolatry. Once you have gotten each of them to be his own little god—and not even realize it—you will have achieved a real victory. You’ll find it endlessly amusing, watching them fight over the smallest things, all because you’ve managed to create a pantheon of gods 350 million in number. But do keep these fights on small issues. Don’t let them expend energy really fighting for something other than their own theocracy. If you can get them each to be their own god, much of the game will be won, and they are safely on the path to the halls of Our Father Below.

Yours truly,


Chief Rabble Rouser

Department for the Advancement of Anarchy (DAA)

666 Abaddon Drive

The Abyss, Hell

An Ode to the Pen


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It is a well (or not so well) acknowledged fact that writing with a pen is superior to writing on a computer. I say this in all seriousness as I type this out on a word processor—an ugly term for something used for a noble art.  I am a romantic— as such, a computer fails to satisfy as a well-crafted fountain pen does. I would much rather listen to the scratch of the metal nib of a dip pen on paper, than to the monotonous patter of plastic keys being struck.

Some would argue that it is easier to write on a computer, and it is. Some would argue that writing on a computer makes for neater documents. It does (though I’ve never been one for documents, and reports, and other such business sounding creatures). In fifty years from now when most of our modern authors are dead, they will display their computers in museums, with the glorified word processing document that contains the author’s last work open on a screen only growing more pixelated with time. And it will interest me not at all.  No, in fifty years, it will still be the cuneiform tablets of the Sumerians, carved into clay tablets; the Norse works engraved with sweat (and blood) into stone tablets; the elegant handwritten letters of Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, scratched out with a real pen, on real paper, in the midst of the American Civil War; and the monolithic manuscript of The Lord of the Rings, in all its messy, unorganized glory, that hold my attention and most likely the attention of others.

When I finish a manuscript, laboriously scratching it out with a pen as if dipped in my own blood, I look back and see the carnage of ink and paper of a battle long fought, and costly. Words, sentences, paragraphs, scratched out, as if condemned at the executioner’s block. I see the corpses of drafts that were, and that shall be laid to rest in dignity in a drawer of my desk. I see stains of coffee, and tea, forever a testament to the work that went into the newly fledged creature that the public will see.

So, while it may be easier, I will not yet utterly bend the knee to the Tyrant Computer.

Death in Adam, Life in Christ


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All humans fall into one of two categories: those who are in Adam, and those who are in Christ. There are major, if not antithetical differences between the two. One is death; the other is life. One is suffering; the other is joy. One is essentially a doctrine of introversion; the other of extroversion. Those who are without Christ (in Adam) are dead. They are without repentance destined for hell.
The attributes of being in Adam are every type of sin: murder, slander, envy, lust, malice, and many others. A person who is in Adam may seem a virtuous pagan (and it can be debated whether there is such a thing), but even if there are virtuous pagans it is doubtful that the majority of moderns can live up to it. Without Christ, even if virtuous pagans existed, most surely are destined to hell. Sin is something that corrupts at first quietly. It eats away from the inside, destroying the soul as a tree is destroyed from the inside by rot. Humans are not attacked externally, but rather from the inside out, like a hereditary disease or deformity.
The attributes of one who is in Christ are listed in Galatians. They are: “love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, gentleness, and self-control. Against these things there is no law.” These are the polar opposites of the fruits of sin. Love instead of murder. Kindness instead of malice. Patience instead of envy or lust. Focus on other people, and ultimately on God, rather than the self.
When one is in Adam, it is as if one is in a family. We are descendants, and inherit a sin nature. Even if we did not inherit it, it is quite likely that we would still fall. We are in Adam, and because of this worthy of death: eternal death. When one repents and becomes a Christ-Follower, one is literally removed from Adam and place in the family and inheritance of Christ. The sinner is absolved, and the inheritance of guilt removed. Justice through Christ’s death is satisfied, and those who choose to accept it, are saved from eternal damnation.
If one is in Adam one is dead in the spirit. When one accepts Christ one is raised again with him, in spirit when one accepts Christ, and destined to be raised again in body at the end of the world as we know it.

The Nature of Evil in Beowulf


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Through out the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, there are numerous vivid portrayals of the nature of evil. All three have a few things in common, including greed, or perhaps more appropriately, the stronger description: lust.   Grendel, the Mother of Grendel, and the Dragon are all evil, all three are interesting portrayals of evil.
Let us start with Grendel. Grendel is described as a descendant of Cain, as are his kin: the orcs, elves, demons, and such. Cain it will be recalled committed the first recorded case of murder. Grendel’s first and most overwhelming characteristic is a blood-lust, and battle-lust. The portrayal of his slayings depict him as savage, and reveling in the spilling of the blood of mortal men. Grendel’s main trait then, apart from greed, is blood-lust: brutality, savagery, murder, and related characteristics. Grendel is the first, and perhaps most blunt and savage depiction of evil in Beowulf.
Grendel’s mother, despite her relationship to Grendel, is quite different. She is described as weaker, and she uses cunning to exact vengeance. She does not seem to revel in blood shed as her son did. When she visits the halls of the Danes to exact vengeance for Beowulf’s killing of her son, she enters without fanfare, and seizes one man. And unlike Grendel, she bears him away, rather than slaying him there in front of his comrades. The mother of Grendel is cunning and less blunt than Grendel himself. Her overwhelming characteristic is pure malice. Of all the evils portrayed in Beowulf, she (in my mind at least) is the most like Satan, even more so than the Dragon.
The Dragon is the most primeval of the evils portrayed. The Dragon could be said to be the personification of greed, or more accurately, lust. The dragon broods over its hoard of gold, never enjoying it, but lusting after every part of it, down to the last coin. Through out the various mythologies and epic poetry, the dragon is always portrayed this way. The Dragon is a sickness. Fafnir, in Norse poetry, is cunning, and ends up eventually corrupting a great many people. In J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, Smaug is quite like both the Dragon of Beowulf, and like Fafnir. In the films of the book, the “dragon sickness” is done quite well. Smaug is first and foremost a cunning and greedy creature, and so it is with the Dragon of Beowulf.
Evil in Beowulf has one thing in common: lust. Lust is at the root of all the evils in Beowulf, and it can be argued was the beginning of sin. Eve lusted after the apple. Humans lust for power, wealth, and other more abstract things. Lust is what the three great evils of Beowulf have in common.

On the Conversion of The Atheist


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In the Bible, some of the people ask Jesus for a sign. They ask that he prove his identity and authority, probably they have something bright and flashy in mind: lightning from heaven, spheres of fire, something like this. Christ does not give them the supernatural sign they desire. At least, he doesn’t in a way that they see and understand. Is it not enough that he has healed the sick? That he has cast out demons? One finds an attitude like this from many atheists today: “I’ll believe in God when he shows me he’s real.” How does one respond to this?
One class of atheists simply will not believe in God. They could be taken up to heaven and they wouldn’t accept the truth of heaven: like the dwarves in C.S. Lewis’ The Last Battle. They’re so hardened, so determined to continue in disbelief, that they believe they are still in the dingy stable, despite actually being on a green lawn on the borders of Aslan’s country. Quite frankly, there is no response to this type of atheist who asks for a sign. They might even get one, but it wont be good enough, they will always find some way of explaining it away.
There is another class of atheists who reason has led to believe that God is not a plausible explanation. Reason has led them to the conclusion there is no God. This class there is a bit more hope for. A sign may indeed bring them to faith. But as with the Jews in the time of Christ, this sign may not be quite what is expected. Jesus performed miracles, and pardoned sin, anyone who was willing to give him a chance could come to the conclusion that he was in fact giving them signs: he was, is, and always will be broadcasting loud and clear for those willing to consider objectively for a moment.
There is still another class, those who would rather believe in anything but the God of the Christianity. These may seem similar to those of class one, but there is a stark difference. Atheist is perhaps not even a good term for these non-Christians. They may claim to be atheist in order to do away with God, but atheist is in fact an incorrect term for them. This type will cling to whatever alternative they have no matter what, they may say they are atheist and yet have their own “god”. Atheism in this case is very much a religion. The atheist of this type is the one that will attack Christianity at every level possible, with all might and main. They will do anything to destroy, disprove, and slander this God who is so offending to them. A sign here is useless.
Three classes of atheists, or more appropriately, non-Christians have been presented. Class one and three will not be converted by a sign, nor by reason. Class two there is a chance with. What, one may ask, is the hope for those of class one and three? How can one convert them if reason and miracle are useless? There is only one other alternative: reason has failed, and a blunt, outright miracle or sign has failed, but prayer can still be employed. Properly speaking, humans never convert other human beings at all. God is the one who does the converting, but he may choose to do it through a human, or the prayers of a human.

Christ’s Death


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Christ’s death on the cross was about the most gruesome one could suffer at the time. The perfect son of God was tortured and slain by sinners. But he rose again, and his death atones for our sins. It pays the debt that sinners owe God.
In order for the redemption of man to be brought about, someone had to die. God said that if man ate of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, he would surely die. God couldn’t go back on this, it would have negated his authority, and lessened the offense committed. Man does die: he dies physically. But, in order to atone someone else had to die, someone who had never fallen. This is the reason that it is the son of God who dies. None of the prophets, not even the best of them, would have been good enough. The sacrifice for man had to be perfect.
It is this perfectness that pays the debt of man. God is infinitely higher than every human that ever was, is, or ever will be. He is infinitely better. Only the death of someone better could save mankind. God is the only one, the only thing, in the universe that meets this requirement. When man fell, he pulled the whole of creation crashing down around his ears. There is not an atom, not a nano-particle in the universe that is perfect anymore. Everything has been utterly corrupted.
If something has been utterly corrupted, then obviously the only atonement is through something or someone who is utterly perfect, who is utterly pure. The very fact that Christ was born of a virgin is a symbol of his purity. Only purity can negate and counteract the effects of impurity: of sin. Only complete and utter purity pays for complete and utter depravity and corruption.
Christ redeems us through his blood. Our word excruciating comes from “excrucis” or “out of the cross.” Christ suffered the most painful death man was able to contrive at the time. He was not only tortured physically, but bore all of mankind’s sins.

Discipline in War


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The dictionary defines discipline as: “the practice of training people to obey rules or a code of behavior, using punishment to correct disobedience.” Discipline is an unsavory, yet necessary character. He is needed in almost every area of life, if only to restrain vices. In ancient Greece, the Spartan considered discipline the most important thing one could possess.
Discipline is important in war. Without discipline there would either be no victories, or they would turn into anarchic affairs at one point or another. If one takes away all discipline in war, one sees mass slaughter of civilians, among other atrocities. Without discipline one truly sees Darwin’s principle played out: “survival of the fittest”, in the ugliest fashion possible among humans. In reality, World War II and Hitler’s regime play a prime example of lack of moral discipline in war. In fiction Sauron in The Lord of the Rings, and President Snow in The Hunger Games. In The Lord of the Rings, Sauron shows no moral discipline in war, anything and everything is “available” from his point of view, to be bent to his own purposes. The way in which his armies behave in war, and in individual battles, demonstrates a lack of discipline. The orcs frequently fight amongst themselves, sometimes slaying their own comrades. When the orcs march on Helm’s Deep, or Minas Tirith, they are more like a vast wave throwing itself recklessly against rock, than an orderly formation. In Collins’ trilogy one sees not only lack of moral discipline in war on the part of one side, but an insatiable appetite for it. The so called “hunger games” are the ultimate lack of discipline in war. A punishment annually for “crimes” so long in the forgotten past that they only have the ambiguous “Dark Times” for a name. Lack of discipline is fatal in all three of the aforementioned case-studies.
Discipline is important in academics. Discipline is related to the word disciple which means: “a follower or student of a teacher, leader, or philosophy”. If you disciple yourself to somebody you are claiming to attempt to emulate their actions, which by its very nature entails in some cases forcing yourself to do something against the natural bodily instinct. Without discipline of one form or another, education quickly fails. Indeed, without discipline, education can even become harmful. Being too zealous for knowledge is just as much a disease as being to zealous for power. Of either of these, Sauruman is far more guilty of the former than of the latter.
Discipline is important in life, in general. Or perhaps more accurately (and to be more specific), moral choices in life need discipline. Morality–a state of being moral–requires discipline. Without discipline morality is well nigh impossible. Morality and discipline could in a sense be said to be synonyms. Both require in some situations, mere force of will, a resolution to “keep slogging on.” While in some senses, especially physical, one can have discipline with out morality, one cannot have morality without discipline, and, in most cases one does require morality for proper discipline.
Discipline and morality are closely interrelated. When, in The Lord of the Rings, Frodo carries the Ring to Mount Doom, it requires both discipline and morality. When he claims the Ring for his own, it is the result of both of these breaking down; they both bring each other crashing down simultaneously.